Dem Bones: Skulls and Bones in Magic & Ritual

Hare and Fox Skulls

“Dem bones, dem bones, dem dry bones
Dem bones, dem bones, dem dry bones
Dem bones, dem bones gonna walk a-roun’”

Traditional

Bones are a type of fetish. A fetish is “an object regarded with awe as being the embodiment or habitation of a potent spirit or as having magical potency (source)”. The word fetish originates from the French fétiche which stems from the Portuguese word feitiço meaning “charm” or “sorcery”. Feathers, bones, crystals, and stones are all types of fetishes. Skulls and bones have an appeal to witches who perform spirit work and are a necessary and simple way to connect with spirits of the dead and of animals. Working with bones is not just for necromancers and black magicians. Practitioners who work with bones are a wide range of healers, diviners, shapeshifters, rootworkers, witches, shamans, druids, and pagans.

Cleaning Bones

The safest and easiest way to clean bones is maceration. Remove any remaining skin or flesh and place the bones in a container and completely cover with tapwater. Replace the water every few days with fresh water. You can pour out the smelly water in your garden as a morbid compost tea your plants will love. When the water stops becoming murky and as smelly you are ready for the next step.  Rinse the bones again with plain water and scrub off any remaining tissue. Then submerge the bones in a container filled with hydrogen peroxide. This both sterilizes and whitens bone. It may take a few hours or a few days depending on the size of the bones and the strength of the hydrogen peroxide. Afterward remove the bones and give them one last rinse with water and allow them to dry. They are now ready to work with as you please. Never use bleach. It will cause bone to degrade at a very fast rate and can also cause fatty tissue to become trapped inside the bone resulting in greasy smelly bones that will continue to decompose. Here’s a great pdf of instructions from The Bone Room: Prepping individual skulls and bones using maceration.

Too squeamish to deflesh bones and leave them in a bucket of smelling rotting water? No worries, there are two other methods you can use to avoid that part. The first is to bury the animal. Bury it fairly deep so scavengers don’t smell it and run off with your precious bones. Depending on the size of the animal, skull, or bones you are burying, it will take three months to one year for all the skin and tissue to decompose and just leave the bone(s) behind. To make it easier to dig up a skeleton of a whole animal bury it it in a burlap sack. The bag has to be a natural coarse material and loosely woven in order for the bits to still decompose properly. Once you’ve dug up your bones, wash them with water and follow the same instructions above using hydrogen peroxide. The second alternative method is exposure. Some people have had success leaving dead animals they find on a hot sunny roof to decompose. This is an efficient method if you don’t mind the smell and toss a dark rubbermaid container over top to get the heat, but not the damage from the sun. Once again, the length of time it takes depends on the size of the animal or bone. Please don’t throw a deer on your roof! I’d only recommend this method for parts of a larger animal or whole smaller creatures like birds and squirrels. If you use the exposure method you’d have to live on a farm or in a more rural area. Suburban neighbours tend to frown upon decomposing animals next door.

Reddening Bones

Take red ochre
Fat and tallow
Rub my bones
And say your prayers

“Barrow Song” — Telling the Bees

Reddening bones is a practice found across countries, cultures,  religions, and time. It is mainly performed by peoples practicing ancestor worship, but animal bones can be reddened as well. The process is literally making the bones red. This is meant to mimic the lifeforce, blood, and tissue that have since left the bones and give them life again. To redden human or animal bones you use, mix red ochre with red wine until it forms a paste and let it sit in a jar or bowl covered for a day or two. If you can’t get your hands on red ochre pigment you can substitute with old red brick dust as old bricks contain ochre. Then apply the mixture to the cleaned bones with your hands and cover the whole bone or skull with paste. Leave it on for another day (half a day at least). You can wrap it in plastic to keep the paste wet or spray it now and then with water or red wine to keep it moist. Keeping it moist allows the colour to leech into the bone just like henna into the skin. Then remove the paste and allow any remaining particles to dry. When the skull has completely dried, brush away any remaining red ochre particles. Do not wash the bones, but a gentle polishing with a soft cloth is okay.  Store your newly reddened bones on your altar or in a beautiful box or cloth bag.

Bone Divination:

There’s a thousand things you’ve got to see to believe,
c’mon and lay them bones down at my feet
we’re going to look into your future see what we can see.

“Bangor Mash” — The Devil Makes Three

There are so many different types of bone divination, mostly belonging within a cultural context, that it is better to find a method that resonates with you or is found in the culture you base your magic and practices in. I’d even recommend coming up with your own system. Most bone divination practiced today is performed in Africa and Asia. The amount of lore on bone divination merits an article of its own.  If I did write such an article it would solely be on Scottish bone divination methods. For the time being here are some more varied resources to explore:

Human Bones

The possession and reverence of human bones is most commonly found in cultures who practice a long tradition of ancestor worship. It is still part of the mourning process in some Asian countries today to dig up the bones of your loved ones after a few years, clean them, reassemble them neatly in a box and find them a new home in a tradition called “second burial”. Despite misconceptions, it is not illegal to possess human bones in Canada and the United States. This doesn’t mean grave robbing is legal, but instead that it is legal to purchase human remains or to convince your parents or grandparents to let you have their skull after they die (that is, if you can talk them into it).

[youtube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9b3tc0OtVM]

Human bones are used in magic and ritual as a fetish or vessel to house the spirit of the dead person and enable them to ground better in this realm so a magical practitioner can better communicate and work with them. The spirits of the dead are not servitors to be bound and ordered around. Instead they are allies to help and guide us. Place your skull or bones in a place of reverence either on an ancestral altar or in a beautiful container like the reliquaries of churches in the Middle Ages. Leave your bones regular offerings. Find out if the spirit has any preferences of alcohol, tobacco, flowers, foods, candies, or objects. You can invite them to share in the essence of your meals ever day at dinner as well. The person the bones belonged to in life can become a familiar spirit to you in your art. They can help you commune with the dead and send messages back and forth. They can travel places you cannot and be your eyes and ears. Always make sure to work with a spirit out of love and respect. If you work with bones not of a family member be sure to build up a friendship with the spirit as you would with a real person. Do not ask too much of them too soon, but instead be consistent in your offerings and communion with them first.

Human bones can also be used in necromancy. Necromancy is a form of divination working with the spirits of the dead. One summons them and presents them with questions about the past, present, or future. It is believed the dead are not bound by time and are excellent oracles and advisers. For more information on working with spirits of the dead see my article on Ancestors in Modern Witchcraft.

Animal Bones

“All shells and bones
the spey-wife enters,
widdershins.”

Kathleen Jamie, Atoms of Delight

Animal bones are used in witchcraft and folk magic to commune and work with animal spirits as familiar, guides, and protectors. Like human bones, the bones of animals can be also be used to ground a spirit animal in this realm. Bones act as a spirit vessel for animal familiars to dwell in when you work with them. This doesn’t mean that the spirit lives in the bone(s) all the time, but instead it is their home when you call upon them. Animal bones and skulls can be placed on an altar or carried in a medicine or crane bag to work with them outdoors or on the move.  Animal bones can be used to call upon mythological creatures as well. To do this you need only to combine bones from the different animals that make up the creatures. For example, bind together parts from an eagle and lion to summon a griffon or combine snake, lizard, and the bones or feathers of a bird of prey to summon a dragon.

Animal bones can be incorporated into ritual jewelry for direct contact and easier communion with the spirits the bones belong to. Ritual jewelry using bones is the most practical and direct way of bringing your animal familiars into rituals and spellwork.  If you only have very small bones or a delicate insect to work with than you can place the parts in a glass vial and either use it as a vessel on your altar or attach a chain or leather thong to it to wear around your neck. By wearing animal bones you can take on the attributes and powers of the animal they belong to such as fox teeth for cunning, owl bones for seeing in the dark, or snake bones for the ability to renew and change your life. Bones can also confer an animal’s magical abilities. Many animals are “shamanic” in nature enabling the practitioner to whom they are familiar to adopt their ability to travel between worlds. Such creatures known to travel between the realms of earth, sea, and sky or have extraordinary powers of transformation include frogs, toads, snakes, all birds (especially water fowl), alligators, crocodiles, turtles, beavers, otters, dragonflies, spiders, beetles, butterflies, cicadas, and more.

Animal bones can be used to craft ritual tools. Many traditional rattles are made using skulls, turtle shells, or little bones tied closely together for the sound of their rattling against one another. Bones can also be tied to staffs or stangs, wands, or even sewn onto ritual robes. Animal bones, especially chicken and other bird bones, are used for traditional divination methods in many cultures. This can also be incorporated into European practice by carving Futhark or Ogham runes onto animal bones or using slices of deer antler instead of the usual materials of wood and stone.

Animal bones, hides, and feathers have yet another important use in magic — shapeshifting. These parts can be worn as jewelry or donned as a costume while going into trance to leave your body so either your spirit takes on the form of the animal or you are led to a living (and willing) animal to possess temporarily. Another method of using animal parts for shapeshifting includes making a magical salve or potion with bones, hairs, skin, or feathers to rub on your skin or take internally before attempting to shapeshift. If you are making a salve, include herbs and/or fungi associated with that animal as well as bits of your own hair or nail clippings in the recipe. If you are making a tea or tincture as a potion, make sure to do the same. In my experience tinctures are much more palatable than a tea of bone shavings and hair. For more information see my article: On Shapeshifting.

Resources:

  1. Andrews, Ted. Animal-Speak: The Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small. Llewellyn, 1996.
  2. Andrews, Ted. The Art of Shapeshifting. Dragonhawk Publishing, 2005.
  3. Baring-Gould, Sabine. “Skulls”. A Book of Folk-lore. London: Collins Clear Type Press, 1913.
  4. Searfoss, Glenn. Skulls and Bones: A Guide to the Skeletal Structures and Behavior of North American Mammals. Stackpole Books, 1995.
  5. Thompson, C.J.S. “The Folk-lore of Skulls and Bones”. Hand of Destiny: Everyday Folk-lore and Superstitions. London: Senate, 1932.
  6. Yronwode, Catherine. Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic. Luck Mojo Curio Co., 2002.

Join the discussion 22 Comments

  • Beautiful article. I felt so blessed when I found the opossum and chipmunk/mouse(?) skull on a nature walk. I simply couldn’t leave them behind. They’re nice and clean but I’m still not sure what to do with them.

    • I’d check out Ted Andrews Animal-Speak, he has quite a few ideas for what to do with skulls and other bits as well as how to use them in ritual. It’s also a reference book like Cunningham’s herbal encyclopedia, but for animals.

      I have a feeling your second skull is a squirrel or chipmunk. Mice skulls are only about 1.5cm long and Rat skulls not much bigger. Despite being annoying, squirrels are actually quite sacred – especially in Norse mythology where they take on a Hermes-like role 😉

      • Thanks for the book recommendation!

        Yeah … the smaller skull is too large to be a mouse, but I’m no biologist and parts of the skull are missing so it’s harder for me to identify it. It almost seems too small to be a squirrel but I guess it could have been a baby! I’ll have to do more poking around. My instincts tell my chipmunk, but my instincts were wrong before. 😛

        I actually have a friend who follows a Norse path and the group she works with have a very close relationship with Ratatoskr. Such an interesting spirit!

  • Hi Sarah,

    Thank you very much for writing that. I now only have to find my bones and then I can get cleaning them.

    Can you use rainwater instead of tapwater? We’ve got a water butt in the garden and it’s pouring down at the moment.

    You also said something earlier about not opening the belly of any creature because of parasites, so what do you do then?

    • There’s two more options I forgot to include for cleaning bones. I’ll add them now 😉

      I would think rainwater or springwater would be much more magical than tap water. I collect both and use them for all kinds of mischief in my magic.

  • Robert says:

    Sarah, excellent article! I will have to view the links for divination methods soon.

    Red Ochre is usually Red Iron Oxide (don’t mess with Red Mercury or Cinnabar pigment !!), and some-high end Art supply stores may carry it for proper making of traditional pigment oil-paint. I hadn’t heard of mixing with red wine, thank you, that is good information. the mild acids and tannins in the wine might give the bone a bit of “tooth” to hold the pigment.

    One comment, about human bone use, the law cuts a little bit finer than you indicate in your article, and changes from jurisdiction to Jurisdiction.

    Generally in Canada, it is illegal, but it can be MADE to be legal.
    (The legal problems with this is one of the reasons that in the branch of shamanism I practice, we practice to work without tools.)

    In Canada it is not UNLAWFUL to possess human bone *exactly*, it is frowned on and casually winked at, IF you have the PAPERS. But if they want, there are tiny offen$e$ that authorities can hara$$ people with. However, most importantly, it is not lawful to Transport human remains Without a Permission of Possession. For Cremains, the Funeral Home will stick on or insert into the Urn the proper certificate for this (and it is considered to be a ‘Transport-from-here-to-where-they-are-going-to-be-*legally*-scattered’ permission, not a carry it around indefinitely permission). And the Funeral Director will likely give you a short lecture on this. Don’t even TRY to cross international boundaries unless you have all your papers, for both countries, or the least that could happen if they are discovered, is confiscation.

    Fortunately, few people really know about these bone tools and artifacts, and fewer can actually recognize what they are looking at. The CSI tv show and the Web is changing this a bit. Customs officials get extensive workshops in endangered product transportation.

    In the last few years, a Halifax Masonic-style order lost its initiatory Human Skeleton, ’cause cops took notice, and there was not a paper trail. Even though it had been in possession of the order for more than 3/4 century, without clear identification (thought to be a deceased member from the early 20th century), ownership paperwork or provenance, court had no choice but to confiscate. Generally a court must consider the irregular existence of human remains to indicate the possibility of a criminal act although there is some sort of time limit on this.

    For Religious and Magic workers, your recognizably human implements will have to have anthropological Apprai$al$ and Certification$ of identification and significance in order for you to travel freely with them.

    So, if you convince Uncle Long Tom to will you his thighbone to turn into a recorder or flute, get the notarized paperwork for his permission in order, and get written agreement and assurance of paperwork from the Funeral Home BEFORE Uncle kicks it. I expect some funeral homes will not be willing… And after, the notarized paperwork and certificates travel with the instrument FOREVER. Go with Uncle to Precheck with a Funeral Director, Lawyer or Justice, to be sure of what paperwork is needed, also precheck for International travel. There are International Treaties relating to Artifacts like this, and a savvy anthropologist will be able to give you a heads-up on which countries are not signatories, have additional hoops or have a total ban.

    Germany, for example, I have heard, requires you to get a permission from them if you are transporting a cadaver FROM Germany, and Germany will only give the permission if the Country being shipped to will give a certificate of ACCEPTANCE for the goods (which may have to be specially written by that country). Can be complicated. This may slop over onto recognized artifacts treaties.

    I had to look into this a bit, someone asked me about Buddhist Funerals, and this came up.

    I am in the process of repairing a Human Skull Damaru Drum, provenance to at least 400 years (but is actually older, by about 200 more years), and after consulting with an Archeologist and Museum Curator, I am taking documenting photographs, and I will have to arrange to have these examined and certified by a recognized authority in Tibetan Buddhist Religious art and artifacts, before the owner (at least these last 5 incarnations) can travel with it again safely. It broke in Tibet, and he only brought it to me because he did not trust anyone local to be able to repair it. Until paper work in place, it does not move.

    For bone workers, I have some technical tricks that I will share.

    I have worked with bones in necklace strings, Buddhist Malas, for some years, some of the older antique ones are very valuable and rare. Occasionally one may come across a Tibetan Buddhist “Bodhisattva” mala or rosary, that is made from human bones. Only folk very familiar with can really tell.

    One trick that I have come up with is how to preserve the bone beads from degradation due to contact with human skin.

    These are mostly processes for cosmetic appearance, not necessarily for magical preparations, but if you are a magic-worker, handling the bones this much with this much attention, it will often come to the same result.

    The bone beads from commercial sources, usually bovine in origin from 3rd world slaughterhouses (Philippines, Nepal), are often under a bit of stress, and quite dry (likely from heat processing and also from bleaching, as you note in your article). They are often lightly waxed.

    When in contact with the light and volatile human skin-oils, the bone beads will absorb the oils, discolour, and may swell and split or fracture along layers of bone growth, necessitating a difficult repair. Usually cleaning in alcohol or acetone, and gluing using a non hydrophilic Cyano-acrylate glue, crazy-glue for woodworking, is the only easy repair. Epoxies, not so good.

    I have found that this splitting problem can be eliminated, prevented, by following a multi-stage process.

    First soak the beads in a (sealed) mixture of isopropyl- and rubbing (ethyl) alcohols for some days, this will remove the waxes and oils remaining or added to make them more attractive for the commercial market.

    Once dry, the bone will now take a dye treatment, if you want. Tandy leather dyes are good for this. (Ventilation and/or organic vapour mask). Mix to get the colour you want, and soak for a few days in sealed jars. Tandy dyes are modern chemical dyes, so they will show up in careful appraisals as modern. For the traditionalist or if you are intending to properly “lovejoy” or counterfeit the beads to pass as truly antique, you will have to find earth based or older oil based dyes, which do not uniformly penetrate the fine bone structure very well (but can have a very attractive result). Once dyed, the bones will have to rest and dry for some time, then be washed several times again in the alcohol solutions, to remove loose dye. (T-Shirt FAIL otherwise!!).

    Most modern (safe and Idiot-Proof) woodworking dyes or stains are only surface treatments, and will actually seal the bone from the next oil treatment.

    Then when dry, the beads can be soaked for about a month in a sealed jar of Swedish Wood Oil, a rather rare deep-penetrating woodworking finish. Take it out and drain on paper towel or pat dry and leave in a light but cool ventilated area, and it will take about two weeks to a month for the finish to dry (oxidize). Fortunately, Swedish wood oil is its own thinner, so if it turns out sticky or gross, just dip it again and the surface will re-wet, and sticky-goo can be buffed off. It is the Deep-Penetrating feature that seals and preserves the bone.

    Sadly I have not found a more commonly available replacement oil finish, most others, Danish, Tung, etc, are fast-oxidizing surface treatments (minimal penetration) only. We need the deep-penetrating and slow-oxidizing feature of the Swedish Wood Oil product. It is available in the States, they use it to stabilize, prevent weather splintering, of pressure-treated lumber used in decks, and in Log style house construction.

    My own bone rosary, with this treatment, most people think is amber. until with my permission, they pick it up and realize how heavy it is. The bone takes on a translucence and a glow, the oils have formed a transparent bond throughout the bone. And the old Tibetan masters think it is REALLY OLD !!

    I should apologize for being so long-winded, I am sure most of you may have either skipped to something else, or have long since fallen asleep. I will try to mend my ways.

    Blessings,

    Robert

  • Robert says:

    An additional comment to your suggestion on exposure for cleaning bones, I have found that sometimes “green” or fresh bones can split if they are subjected to heat too quickly, like a radiator or sometimes sunlight. More of a problem with larger bones too, like heavy elk or deer legboness. Warm, I agree, but I would try for a shady spot or a cover to keep them out of direct sunlight.

    • Thanks for the legalese Robert – it’s not my forte and it’s nice to hear from someone’s who has gone through it. I think you answered a lot of questions North Americans might have had about human remains. Also, thanks for sharing the info on how to work with bone beads. I’m sure others (including myself) will find it very useful!

      • Robert says:

        Yep, human remains are still a touchy point here in the west. What I wrote is just a beginning of the mine-field that may have to be negotiated if a person wants (or through their trad, *needs) to use artifacts like this. Tibetans use everything, the bones are often donated by the families, or requested by a monastery that a certain heavy mountain yogi contribute bones to ritual instruments and tools, like trumpets, and drums, and rosaries.

        In my trad there is a poem of teaching verses, I guess you could call it “the Warrior Shaman’s Sutra”, Sutra is probably not quite the best translations, “Suggestions” is too weak, and “rules” is too strong. “Aphorisms” might be close.

        one verse goes,

        “The coat of bones can kill you.”

        Means that if you really need to use *something in order to quickly manifest and take up attribute, FAIL ! too late.

        I will put in the whole verse here:

        “Wearing the Coat of Bones is the Path,
        Do this for the Community.
        Needing the Coat of Bones can kill you.
        Keep it close instead in your heart
        Death’s ordination is always there.”

        So we practice with, then learn to practice without.

        Blessings,

        Robert

  • Sarah : I was wondering whether the fluoride in the tap water helped the bones, but I would prefer rainwater myself.

    Robert : I enjoyed what you wrote – I don’t suppose linseed oil works on bones?

    • Robert says:

      Raw Linseed oil, Flax-seed oil, I have not tried it on bones.

      It is a nice natural oil, and easy to use, but I am a bit shy of using it on bones because of problems with it in woodworking and marine applications.

      Downside there is that linseed oil is not deep penetrating, nor quite waterproof. It oxidizes a bit quickly, and forms a heavy surface coating, which once it is scuffed, allows water or anything else into the wood. Also, in exterior wood applications, Linseed oil alone (I am not sure exactly the reason or mechanism, if it is moisture, or moisture plus sunlight), allows a black mold to grow in the wood. Maybe because moisture cannot escape easily once it penetrates.

      Though Linseed oil on wood is an excellent base-coat for painting with old alkyd oil-base paints, having it as a primer base will increase life of the paint up to 50%. Once linseed oil is protected from sunlight and UV (by the paint), mold does not form.

      Downside using Swedish Wood Oil is that the current modern formulation has serious solvents in it for dryers, which means metals and non-eco friendly outgassing. I wouldn’t recommend it for applications that touch food.

      My old stuff, now used up, from back in the 1950’s and ’60’s was used in marine applications as well, but was an all-natural oil product.

      It might be interesting to try some wax products on scrap bones as an experiment. Wax products with solvent and high Carnauba wax component. Some car wax restoration finishes that buff really hard may work. Although the softer waxes in it, with the solvent, may swell the bone and split it like lighter oils.

      The really old oil finishes, like from the 17th century, would probably work. Stradavari used them on his fiddles, they took months to set up, he had a gofer whose only job was moving the propped up instruments in the courtyard to catch the best sunlight. 18th century french spirit finishes and shelacs are the beginning of the “modern” oil varnishes. very surface, not penetrating enough.

  • Crystal says:

    Thanks for this post. Very helpful and informative as I have recently acquired a small cat skull.

  • amy says:

    Thanks for this post. I found a lot of bones on a hike recently which were already cleaned. I then saw a dead squirrel the other day just laying dead not mashed and I thought about bringing it home to bury it. Then I thought I shouldn’t because what if someone saw me? I am thinking I will bring a bag today and then if it’s still there collect it and then bury it. I don’t know about the touching of dead animals even with gloves because I think the icky disease possible molecules get into the air and I would breathe it or something. I think you had a post on that a long time ago although it wasn’t as paranoid as I am! :)

  • Cáer says:

    Thank you for your post, Sarah. I appreciate the information you have shared. I have found dead squirrels a couple of times but was always unsure of how to proceed from there.

  • ~MacTavish says:

    Thank you Sarah! Excellent post as always. I cannot wait to try these methods out.

  • Wild Witch Raven says:

    I have found a quick(ish) and efficient way to clean skulls….allow nature to break down the skin (I place the carcass under chicken wire with a light covering of damp soil over the top). Once the skin had begun do decompose, I place the skull into a suitable sized plastic pot (with a lid) with a solution of biological washing liquid (50/50 with warm water) I leave this for a week….no smells!!! After this I rinse the skulls in tepid water, using a fine paint brush to remove any bits left within the brain cavity, then place the well rinsed skull in a weak oxygen bleach solution. Depending on the skull size (rabbit take about a week, magpie/raven/ takes about 4 days, mouse takes 2 days, small bird, a day) i remove the skull, rinse well and allow to dry naturally. You are left with a sparkling clean, sterile skull.

    • Robert says:

      Wild Witch Raven, thank you for the additional advice on cleaning and handling green skulls and bones.

      I am curious, will you share the identities of the actual cleaning products you are using?

      Biological washing liquid, are you talking about an organic cleanser like Amway LOC,
      or a bioactive / enzyme solution for removing stains from laundry, for example? the sort that remove blood?

      I guess something like Oxyclean is too strong for your “weak oxygen bleach solution”? Unless really diluted? could you share some guidlines on what type of product and dilution you use?

      Blessings,

      Robert

  • Beth Svitma says:

    Thank you for this fascinating article, Sarah Lawless, and for these very interesings additional informations, Robert. A very amusing fact : I found a skull in the forest for the first time in my life just two weeks after I read this here. I would like to ask you if it is necessary to keep the skull away from the cold : I have little place in my flat and the skull is not so small, so I putted it on the window sill for the moment, but it’s gonna get really cold quite soon now.

  • Ahmad Wamba says:

    Thanks Sarah ,
    By reading your Article on Bone, I now knew the mysteries of bone.

  • I am relatively new to working with the bodies of dead animals and am grateful for these detailed instructions–thanks for posting this!

  • James says:

    Great article, I’ve had a lovely wee badger skull for some years now that I found while in the woods, just laying there, all cleaned up on the forest floor – it is a young animal (can tell by the size of the ridge running down the crown of the skull), has a few teeth missing. Always takes pride of place.

  • Sunny says:

    I wanted to thank you for this articule. I have had some wolf bones that I got from a gentleman in alaska about 2 years ago. I had no idea how to clean them, or how to make them less oily(?).
    I do love them and now I know how to care for them properly.